Flow control of liquid or gaseous solutions or environments has long been carried out not only mechanically. Modern industrial enterprises are constantly upgrading the main devices to meet all requirements and standards. So, in recent years, so-called solenoid valves are increasingly used for industrial purposes. A solenoid valve is understood as a device that serves to regulate the direction of movement of gas or liquid flows in various technological systems. The solenoid valve works automatically and is controlled by an electric current that is supplied to the induction coil included in the solenoid valve.
- What Is a Solenoid Valve?
- How Does a Solenoid Valve Work
- Area of Use of a Solenoid Valve
- Varieties of Solenoid Valves According to Their Internal Structure
- Solenoid Valve Options According to Their Operating Principle
- What Are the Solenoid Valves by Type of Seal and Diaphragm?
An electromagnetic (solenoid) valve is a device for controlling a working medium under pressure in a pipeline. Its main task is to open/close the bore with a plunger, which is influenced by the magnetic field of an electromagnetic coil or amplification due to the pressure of the working medium and the diaphragm.
The main components of a solenoid valve’s constructions are the following:
- The valve body, which consists of an inlet, an outlet, and a seat.
- A reinforcement tube with a core on which the coil is mounted.
- Plunger that slides inside the reinforcement tube and, in some cases, serves as a seal.
- The electromagnetic coil, which creates a magnetic field necessary to move the plunger.
The copper induction coil, which is located inside the closure device, is hermetically sealed to prevent vapor, liquid or gas particles from entering. When it is necessary to open or close the flow channel of the working medium, the retractable stem solenoid and the diaphragm are used.
In the absence of current, under the influence of spring, the valve completely blocks the flow channel of the working medium or, on the contrary, leaves it completely open. After the voltage is applied to the coil, the cored rod is displaced, resulting in an increase or decrease in the flow cross-section.
In general, for all types of solenoid valves, the operating principle is very simple: the movement of the stem is carried out by the action of electromagnetic induction. When an electric current flows through a coil, an electromagnetic field is applied to the core at its center. The strength and direction of this field depend on the applied voltage. As a result, the shut-off element of the valve moves and the flow area of the channel increases or decreases.
The use of different types of solenoids is possible in various fields because their design is created taking into account a specific environment. The selection of solenoid valves is performed according to their application area.
Depending on the modification, the solenoid valve coil can operate with an operating voltage of 5 to 35 V DC or 220 V AC. Low-voltage solenoid valves are designed to operate in pipelines with a small diameter and low pressure inside the working medium. Their scope is rather limited. It is convenient to integrate such valves into low-voltage control systems, connect to various microcontrollers. Often they are used in private households to connect and control water supply and heating circuits.
In industrial enterprises, different types of solenoids are used almost everywhere including the following areas:
- Oil refineries and gas enterprises;
- Water, gas and heat supply systems;
- Ventilation and air conditioning systems;
- Sterilizers and irrigation systems:
- Pipelines serving food production, systems for bottling beverages, oils, liquid substances.
The scope of application is quite extensive, therefore, the design features of each type are adjusted to a specific area of operation. Each type of solenoid valve is designed to work with a specific medium, temperature ranges and pressures. Care must be taken when selecting a solenoid valve. If you are not sure which type you need, Eltra-Trade employees will help you decide and advise on all your questions.